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سه چالش بزرگ برای آیندۀ افغانستان: افزایش فقر، نا امنی و رشد اقتصادى کند

Silvia Redaelli's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو

هفتۀ گذشته، یک تانکر در جمعی از هزاران وسایل نقلیه در ترافیک سنگین شهر کابل، با گذشتن از بسیاری  ساختمان های دولتی و سفارتخانه ها، به چهارراهی زنبق رسید. با ایستادن در یکی از نقاط مزدحم شهر، ١٥٠٠ کیلوگرام مواد منفجرۀ جابجا شده در آن تانکر منفجر گردید. ساعت ٨:٢٢ صبح بود؛ زمانیکه بسیاری از مردم به طرف وظایف شان و بسیاری از اطفال به طرف مکتب روان بودند. این انفجار، جان ١٥٠ شهروند کابل را گرفت. این یکی از هزاران واقعات است که زندگی افغانها از آن متاثر شده است.

حوادث امنیتی، در طول سالیان اخیر، به طور دومدار در حال افزایش بوده و دامنه ان تقریباً تمام افغانستان را در بر میگیرد. شمار واقعات امنیتی و تلفات غیرنظامیان در ٢٠١٦ ريکارد شکنی نموده است. نظر به آمار شاخص جهانی صلح در سال ٢٠١٦، افغانستان چهارمین کشور نا امن بعد از سوریه، سودان جنوبی و عراق، در جهان محسوب میشود. تشدید و  گسترش جغرافیای نا امنی ها، شمار بیجاشدگان داخلی را بالا برده است. نظر به اطلاعات اخیر سازمان ملل متحد، تنها درسال ٢٠١٦ بیش از ٦٧٠٠٠٠ تن در داخل افغانستان از خانه های شان بیجا شده اند.

گزارش اخیر بانک جهانی تحت نام "وضعیت فقر در افغانستان: پیشرفتها در معرض خطر" نشان میدهد که بدون شک خشونت و نا امنی خطرات زیاد را به صلح و رفاه مردم افغانستان وارد میکند. نظر به معلومات سروی وضعیت اجتماعی افغانها، تخمیناً، ١٧ فیصد خانواده های افغان، در سالهای ٢٠١٣ – ٢٠١٤، پانزده فیصد بالاتر از سالهای ٢٠١١ – ٢٠١٢ در معرض حوادث امنیتی قرار گرفته اند. این با واقعۀ اصلی که توسط بخش امنیتی سازمان ملل متحد گزارش داده شده بود، مشابهت زیاد دارد.

What can Bangladesh do to deliver more and better jobs for everyone?

Qimiao Fan's picture
Bangladesh woman working in flourescent lamp section
Bangladeshi woman works in the flourescent lamp section of SEED Bangla Limited. Photo Credit: World Bank


Bangladesh has made remarkable progress toward ending poverty and sharing prosperity with more of its people. As recently as 2000, about one in three Bangladeshis lived in extreme poverty based on the national poverty line; today, this has fallen to 13 percent. The poorest 40 percent of the population also saw positive per person consumption growth. Like in most countries, a key reason was broad-based growth in earnings. With more than 20 million people still living in extreme poverty and many workers with insecure jobs, Bangladesh cannot be complacent. It needs faster economic growth that can deliver more and better jobs for everyone.

Three threats to Afghanistan’s future: Rising poverty, insecurity, sluggish growth

Silvia Redaelli's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو

Last week, a tanker truck, one of many roaming the streets of Kabul, navigated through bumper-to-bumper traffic, going past government buildings and embassies, to Zanbaq Square. When stopped at a checkpoint, more than 1,500 kg of explosives that had been hidden in the tank were detonated. It was 8:22 am and many Afghans were on their way to work and children were going to school. The explosion killed 150 commuters and bystanders, and injured hundreds more. This is just one of many incidents that affects Afghans’ lives and livelihoods.

Conflict has constantly increased over the past years, spreading to most of Afghanistan, with the number of security incidents and civilian casualties breaking records in 2016. According to the Global Peace Index, Afghanistan was the fourth least peaceful country on earth in 2016, after Syria, South Sudan, and Iraq. The intensification and the geographical reach of conflict has increased the number of people internally displaced. According to the latest United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) data, over 670,000 people were internally displaced in 2016 alone.

Against this backdrop, our recent World Bank report, the “Afghanistan Poverty Status Update: Progress at Risk”, shows that not surprisingly violence and insecurity pose increasing risks to the welfare of Afghan households. Approximately 17 percent of households reported exposure to security-related shocks in 2013–14, up from 15 percent in 2011–12 according to data from the Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey (ALCS)[1]. This is largely in line with the actual incidence of conflict incidents as reported by the United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS).

ஏன் ஒவ்வொரு நாளும் சுற்றாடல் தினமாக இருக்கவேண்டும்?

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
Also available in: English | සිංහල

இந்த வருடத்தின் முதல் ஆறுமாத காலப்பகுதியில் இலங்கையில் வரட்சி, மண்சரிவு,  குப்பை மேடு சரிவு ,வெள்ளப்பெருக்கு போன்ற பல பாரிய அனர்த்தங்கள் இடம்பெற்றன. பாதிக்கப்பட்டவர்களைத் தவிர ஏனையோரின் கவனத்தைப் பெறாதளவில் மேலும் பல அனர்த்தங்களும் இடம்பெற்றன. இலங்கையர்கள் எதிர்கொண்ட இவ் அனர்த்தங்கள் சுற்றாடலை நாம் எங்ஙனம் பேணிக்காக்க வேண்டும் என்பதை அச்சொட்டாக வலியுறுத்தி நிற்கின்றன.    உயிர்களுக்கும் உடைமைகளுக்கும் ஏற்பட்ட சேதங்கள், வாழ்க்கைச் சக்கரத்தில் ஏற்பட்டுள்ள தடங்கல்கள், உளவியல் ரீதியாகவும்  ஆன்மீக ரீதியாகவும் மிகவும் கடினமானவை. எப்போதேனும் இவற்றை வழமைக்கு கொண்டுவருவது மெதுவான செயற்பாடாக அமையும்.

நிலைபேறான சுற்றாடல் முகாமைத்துவம் தொடர்பான சிந்தனைகளை ஆண்டில் ஒரு நாளுக்கு மாத்திரம் நாம் ஏன் மட்டுப்படுத்தவேண்டும்?  நகரப்பகுதிகள், ஆறுகள் அன்றேல் கடலில் இருந்து குப்பைகளைச் சேகரித்தல், தொண்டுநோக்கிற்கான நடைபவனியில் பங்கேற்றல் போன்ற செயற்பாடுகளில் ஈடுபடுவதன் மூலமாக நாம் வழமையாக சுற்றாடல் தினத்தைக் கொண்டாடுகின்றோம்.   இந்த ஒருநாளில் சுற்றாடல் குறித்த ஆர்வம் கட்டியெழுப்பப்படுகின்றது. அனைவரும் பங்கேற்கின்றனர்.  மறுநாளோ வேறு முக்கியத்துவம் மிக்க விடயங்களை நோக்கி அவர்களின் கவனம் நகர்ந்துவிடுகின்றது.  அடுத்த கட்ட அனர்த்தம் நிகழும் வரையில் அவர்களது கவனம் வேறுவிடயங்களில் இருக்கும். மீண்டுமாக ஒருவரை ஒருவர் மாறிமாறி குற்றஞ்சாட்டுதல் ஆரம்பிக்கும்.

Photo Credit: Mokshana Wijeyeratne

பிரச்சனையின் ஓர் அங்கமாகவும் தீர்வின் ஓர் அங்கமாகவும் நாம் எம்மைப் பார்க்கும் வரையில் எதுவுமே மாறப் போவதில்லை. இவ்வாறான பல விடயங்களில் நாம் தினமும் ஒரு மாற்றத்தை ஏற்படுத்த முடியும். கழிவுகள் பற்றி  அவதானம் செலுத்துவோம். எமது இல்லங்களில் தனிப்பட்ட ரீதியில் நாம் அனைவரும் கழிவுகளை உருவாக்குகின்றோம். எம்மைப் பொறுத்தவரையில் குப்பை பைக்குள் கழிவுகளைக் கொட்டி அகற்றிவிட்டவுடன் அந்தப் பிரச்சனை எமக்கில்லை. உண்மையில் கூறுவதானால் அது பொதுமக்களின் பிரச்சனையாக மாறுகின்றது. கழிவுகளை வீட்டிற்குள்ளேயே நாம்  மக்கிப் போகின்றவை எனவும் மீள்சுழற்சிக்குட்படுத்தக்கூடியவை மற்றும் எஞ்சியவை எனத் தனித்தனியே வேறுபிரிப்பதற்கான சாதாரணமான அர்ப்பணிப்பைக் காண்பிப்போமானால் அவை ஒழுங்கான முறையில் சேகரிக்கப்பட்டு அகற்றப்படுமானால் ஒட்டுமொத்த  கழிவுகளின் அளவைக் கணிசமாகக் குறைத்துக்கொள்ள முடியும். கழிவுகளில் இருந்து தயாரிக்கப்படும் உரத்தைக் கொண்டு தோட்டங்களையும் பயிர்களையும் செழிப்படையச் செய்யலாம்.

සෑම දිනයක්ම පරිසර දිනයක් විය යුත්තේ ඇයි?

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
Also available in: English | தமிழ்

පරිසර කළමනාකරණය යන්න ක‍ෙතරම් අසීරු දෙයක්දැයි පසුගිය මාස හය තුළ ශ්‍රී ලංකාව ලද අත්දැකීම් තුළින්ම ‍පැහැදිලි විය. නියඟය, නාය යෑම්, කසල කඳු කඩා වැටීම්, මහා ගංවතුර ආදී විවිධාකාර සිදුවීම්වලට අප මුහුණ දුන් අතර විපතට පත් නොවූවන්ගේ අවධානය දිනා ගැනීම‍ෙන් තොරව ම එ්වා යටපත්ව ගියේ ය. සෑම අවස්ථාවකම සිදුවූ පරිදි, ජීවිත හා දේපළ හානි, දෛනික ක්‍රියාවලියට සිදු වූ බලපෑම් ආදිය විසින් මානසිකව හා ආධ්‍යාත්මිකව ක්‍ර‍මක්‍ර‍මය‍ෙන් ජීවත් වීමට අපහසු මන්දගාමී තත්ත්වයකට අප ඇද දමනු ලැබී ය.

එසේ නම්, මේ තිරසාර පාරිසරක කළමණාකරණයට අප එක් දිනයකදී පමණක් සිත් යොමන්නේ ඇයි?    සාමාන්‍යය‍ෙන් අප පරිසර දිනය සමරන්නේ නගරය වටා, ගං ඉවුරක හෝ මුහුදු ව‍ෙරළක කසළ එකතු කිරීම, නොඑසේනම් පාගමනකට හෝ එවන් ව‍ෙනත් වැඩසටහනකට සහභාගී වීම මගිනි. උනන්දුව අහවරවත්ම, “වඩාත් දැවෙන ප්‍ර‍ශ්න“ වෙනුවෙන් පසුදා උදයේම සැවොම පිය ඔසවන අතර සුපුරුදු අනෙකා මත වරද පැටවීමේ ක්‍රීඩාව ද ආරම්භ වේ.     
 

Photo Credit: Mokshana Wijeyeratne

මෙහිදී පහත ප්‍ර‍ධාන කරුණ තහවුරු කරන්නට කැමැත්තෙමි. ඒ නම්, අප සියල්ලන්ම අර්බුදයේත් විසඳුමේත් කොටස්කරුවන් බව වටහා ගන්නා තුරු කිසිවක් ව‍ෙනස් නොවනු ඇති බව ය. ම‍ෙවන් බොහෝ අර්බුදවලදී , ව‍ෙනසක් සිදු කිරීමේ හැකියාව ඇත්තේ, දිනපතාම, අපටම ය!

Why every day should be environment day?

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
Also available in: සිංහල | தமிழ்

In the first 6 months of this year, Sri Lanka has experienced a number of major events that demonstrate exactly how critical managing the environment is:  Drought, landslides, a garbage avalanche, flash floods — and many other events at scales that have not caught the attention of those not affected.  The damage to lives and assets, and the disruption to routines that make us who we are psychologically and spiritually is tough to live through and slow to reverse – if it ever does. 

So why would we leave thoughts on sustainable environmental management to just one single day a year?  We typically celebrate “Environment Day” by picking up rubbish around the city or from the rivers, or the sea; or by participating in a charity walk, or a charity run, and so forth.  The excitement builds, everyone engages and the next day everyone moves on to “more pressing matters” until the next calamity, and the blame game starts all over again.

Photo Credit: Mokshana Wijeyeratne

Let me assert the following key point: Nothing will change until we all see ourselves as part of the problem and part of the solution.  For many of these issues we can make a difference, every day!

Good luck and good policies

Frederico Gil Sander's picture

In Brazil, where I come from, we are crazy about football, so I grew up listening to football matches. At the end of a match, the reporters would interview the main scorer of the day, who would often say that he was just lucky to receive the ball at the right place.
 
The commentator would then say that “good luck is a combination of ability and opportunity”. This story comes to mind when thinking of India’s economy over the past two years.
 
India has been lucky indeed. In the fiscal year ending March 2016 (FY16), the sharp decline in oil prices generated what economists call a positive “terms-of-trade” shock, which lifted growth.
 
A terms-of-trade shock means that the things you buy suddenly become cheaper relative to the things you sell, allowing you to buy more things.


 
In the fiscal year that just ended, CSO data that was released recently shows that the good monsoons helped agriculture propel growth. Notwithstanding disruption from demonetization, agricultural wages have continued to grow, along with their purchasing power as rural inflation declined.

But India has also implemented good policies, which allowed it to take advantage of the external shocks. The government took advantage of declining oil prices to eliminate fuel subsidies and hike taxes on carbon-emitting petroleum products, a win for the environment and a win for the exchequer.

New Zealand has much to offer the world

Annette Dixon's picture
 
New zealand - World maps on line
New Zealand Map.  Photo Credit: Academia maps GeoAtlas


When people think about New Zealand’s most famous son, Sir Edmund Hillary, they mostly think about the quiet Auckland bee-keeper who conquered Everest in 1953.

Of course, there’s much more to the man. He raised money for the Sherpa communities in Nepal that built schools, hospitals and much more. His commitment to the people of South Asia was also reflected in his successful term in the 1980s as New Zealand’s High Commissioner to India.

As the most senior New Zealander in the management of the World Bank, I have come to appreciate Sir Edmund’s commitment to the people of South Asia and believe it shows how much New Zealand can offer the world.  This will not only make the world a better place but can also help New Zealand too.

What can fuel India's Growth?

Frederico Gil Sander's picture

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The World Bank is releasing its flagship report highlighting the state of the Indian economy, its future growth prospects, the impact of the recent currency exchange on the economy, and the benefits that the progress on the Goods and Services Tax (GST) will have moving forward. 

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