Stuti, I think your response to Janmejay (hi again Janmejay!) begs further questions, because naturaly the mere existence of PTAs does mean they are effective. Nor that they are necessarily and regularly going to be intermdiaries? Do members know their role is; are they motivated to express voice and take action, and if so, whose voice, and in whose interests is action being taken? (eg is it directed towards accountability, and if so whose, and which?) Also how well are PTAs equipped to take action? The same applies to VECs. How often a) do both (PTA's and VECs) have the knowledge they need and b) are they representative of the village, especially those most needing education and c) on what basis do they prioritise? While VEC's and/or PTAs may sometimes provide a way forward (and may need to be part of the answer in the longer term), they may not necessarily provide the best one, especially initially. It seems to me that examining the issue of 'power' in its various dimensions and manifestations, in each context, may be important to understand and explain what is happening. I look forward to more updates on this and other research which throws further light on the topic.