I fully agree with you about the “large sample” approach. After the initial success in Uganda in the late-1990s, Tanzania implemented a PETS, too. If I recall correctly, KPMG was hired to do it. But only in 3 districts. Subsequently, the Ministry dismissed the findings saying that all other districts were different! Even in Uganda the systematic (quantitative) nature of the evidence made a difference. You cannot sweep it under the carpet as you can do with an anecdote. There has been an increased emphasis on providing space for strengthening accountability channels (and through this improve governance) within standard education projects in Africa. The usual approach for this, so far, has been through school based management-type projects, some of which are being rigorously evaluated. A good example for this is the Ghana School Management Committee (SMC) intervention in which SMCs will receive information on school performance and their rights and responsibilities and training on how to act on that information. The project has an RCT design and the baseline survey is currently ongoing. In Tanzania, another SMC project is under design, the primary objective of which is to promote more effective use of school grants. The details of project and impact evaluation are still being finalized and there is scope to build in explicit political economy questions. An impact evaluation in Uganda is aiming to address slightly different governance questions. This is related to a public-private partnership program in the education sector under which the government will finance the education of eligible students in participating private schools. The impact evaluation aims to examine the impact of public funding on school level governance. Baseline data collection for this project is ongoing. It is worth noting that there interest in exploring issues around decentralization in education and health – how to make the newly decentralized systems work effectively. We look forward to expanding this agenda with you and your DECRG colleagues!