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China

Three policies to promote a more inclusive future of work

Luc Christiaensen's picture
 Arne Hoel/World Bank
Even if the technologies are available, businesses and individuals often lack the necessary skills to use them. And these skill gaps exist at multiple levels. 
(Photo: Arne Hoel/World Bank)

As we explained in previous posts, digital technologies present both threats and opportunities for the employment agenda in developing countries. Yet many countries lack the means to take full advantage of these opportunities, because of limited access to technology, a lack of skills, and the absence of a broad enabling environment, the so-called “analog” complements.


A tale of twin demographics: Youth in cities

Nicole Goldin's picture
60% of urban populations will be under the age of 18 by 2030.  How can we harness youth potential as a growth engine for cities? Photo: Arne Hoel/ World Bank

This week thousands of policy-makers, experts, NGOs and urban-minded citizens of all stripes are convening in Quito, Ecuador to discuss the New Urban Agenda at Habitat III – a significant global convening that occurs every 20 years. And, in a couple weeks, amid the costumes and candy, ghosts and goblins of Halloween, the world will mark UN World Cities Day on October 31st. For good reason, youth are part of the conversation.  In today’s global landscape, two demographic patterns should stand out:  rapid urbanization and large youth populations.  These patterns are especially robust across developing nations.  Already the worlds’ cities host half of its citizens, and Asia and Africa are expected to account for 90% of urban growth. While growing, cities have also become younger – many of the world’s nearly four billion people under the age of 30 live in urban areas, and according to UN-HABITAT, it is estimated that 60% of urban populations will be under the age of 18 by 2030.

The reality behind Chinese unemployment data

Shuaizhang Feng's picture

Looking behind the official Chinese unemployment statistics, over the last 30 years there have been large fluctuations in the number of people without work. This is despite the uniformity of the official statistics. By looking at household survey data and other sources, Shuaizhang Feng proposes a more realistic estimate. Moreover, he examines how different groups within China are suffering disproportionately from unemployment, which suggests courses of action for the country’s policy makers. 

Looking at the impact of changes to Chinese labor laws

Albert Park's picture
There have been many concerns about recent changes to Chinese labor laws, aimed at increasing the formality of employment and improving the funding of social insurance programs. A recent set of studies by the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology has looked at the impacts of those changes. Both employers and employees report that the new rules are being enforced and that the cost of employment has gone up. But this has not added to the overall level of unemployment, due to the strong growth rate in the economy generally.


 

College education still makes a huge difference for Chinese workers

Hongbin Li's picture
A recent study undertaken by Professor Hongbin Li of Tsinghua University, has looked at the rates of return from a college education in China. On all levels, having a college degree pays off, even with the recent sharp increase in the number of graduates. Moreover, the returns that accrue from going to the very best colleges are exponentially larger than those gained by graduating from a middling or low ranked college. Over a lifetime of employment, this adds up to a huge difference in total earnings.

Women's comparative advantage: the Chinese context

Mark Rosenzweig's picture
In China, the number of skill intensive jobs versus brawn intensive jobs has increased. While this is generally a hallmark of development, in China it is happening much faster than in other countries. This trend favors women who have a comparative advantage over men in these endeavors. It could also lead to the end of the boy bias in Chinese fertility patterns.

Moving up the garment industry’s global value chain

Paul Lister's picture

Many African countries are striving to move up the global value chain in the footsteps of countries like China and (more recently) Bangladesh. We asked Paul Lister – Director of Legal Services and Company Secretary, Associated British Foods (ABF) – how ABF and its subsidiaries determine where it will source goods. He says that in the end, efficiency is key.

Textiles in Bongooo Bazaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Photo: Flickr @ dnevill (Dan Nevill)

How China is faring with minimum wages

Shi Li's picture

For China, the minimum wage is a useful tool to reduce wage and income inequality, and in recent years, the minimum wage has risen rapidly in many provinces. We recently asked Shi Li (Professor of Economics, School of Economics and Business, Beijing Normal University) about the economic impact of the higher minimum wages. He cautions that enforcement was lax until 2009 and the results of the initial studies are inconsistent and sometimes contradictory.

Construction worker, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Curt Carnemark / World Bank

A Snapshot of How States Learn: India versus China

Luke Jordan's picture

Could the source of the wealth of nations be learning to learn? A recent paper by Luke Jordan, who until late 2013 was a Private Sector Development Specialist for the World Bank, along with Sébastien Turban of Caltech and Laurence Wilse-Samon of Columbia University, contends that the answer is yes.

Bringing New Environmental Technologies to China

Jianxiong Peng's picture

For youth entrepreneurs, the challenges are especially great because of their lack of business experience. We spoke with Jianxiong Peng, a youth entrepreneur from Beijing and the cofounder and Chief Executive Officer of KOE Technology Investment Co, Ltd. Peng's company aims to transfer top environmental technologies from developed countries – such as Japan – which can solve Chinese environmental problems and then incubate companies for each transferred technology. The company now has 45 employees, 85% of which are younger than the age of 33. 

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