If you are looking for a good reading list before the summer ends, we’ve compiled a selection of five recent papers and publications that touch on jobs and changing landscape of labor markets. These recommended readings have one thing in common: they analyze the challenges ahead through different lenses. How is the labor market recovering after the economic crisis? Can life-long learning become workers’ strategy for upskilling in a digital economy? Have countries improved in reducing gender gap at work? What policies can support job creation?
Given the pros and cons of minimum wages in advanced economies, let alone in emerging markets, what types of information should policy makers be armed with? In this blog, we speak with two experts on the topic – John T. Addison (Professor of Economic Theory, University of South Carolina) and David Neumark (Professor of Economics, University of California, Irvine) – both of whom stress the importance of weighing the trade-offs for their own countries.
In recent years, the minimum wage has become an increasingly popular for reducing inequality in many emerging markets, while others are still weighing whether to adopt one. But a lot of confusion still surrounds the impact of minimum wages in advanced economies, let alone in the emerging markets. In this blog, we speak with two experts on the topic: David Neumark (Professor of Economics, University of California, Irvine) and John T. Addison (Professor of Economic Theory, University of South Carolina). They both point to some job loss, especially for skilled workers, in advanced economies.
In the world’s richest countries, those with greater inequality in skills proficiency also have higher income inequality, according to the first OECD Survey of Adult Skills (also known as PIAAC), which measures the skills of 16-65 year-olds across 24 countries. The survey includes assessments of adult reading, numeracy, and place in the digital divide. The OECD's Stefano Scarpetta (Director of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs) tell us that this is the first ever comprehensive survey of the actual competencies of OECD adult workers.
The political and economic transition of post-communist Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries brought substantial improvements in GDP per capita, productivity, incomes and standard of living. But certain worrying phenomena emerged on the labour markets. One of these was a rise in temporary employment, which has created a “dual labor market” – that is, a segmented market with workers in one segment more privileged than those in the other. For the CEE economies – especially Poland – the onset was in the 2000s. A variety of possible solutions exist, but so far the Polish government has done little to improve the situation.
In recent decades, many European countries have tried to instill greater labor market flexibility through increased use of fixed-term, temporary work contracts, as opposed to open-ended or permanent ones. The result has been dual labor markets, with temporary workers having fewer rights and job security than those on permanent contracts. One expert on the topic – Tito Boeri, Professor of Economics and Dean for Research at Bocconi University, Milan – stresses that temporary workers were especially hard hit during the Great Recession.