I too read the article and your comments which I generally agree with. I also note your emphasis on the need to improve in the area of high level education which is correct. I however believe the biggest problem with Africa is organisation. Whether this is to be resolved through higher education is a discussion for another day. Until we are able to organise better an attribute you will find in China and Asian Tigers as well as Europe just having the "well educated" may not solve the problems. Africa has a fairly good number of educated who I believe may have attained the size of a critical mass. They however do not operate in a context where there potential can be harnessed. This to the extent that you will find them operating well from outside the continent but not in their own countries. This challenge ought to be acknowledged as fundamental. The skills that were possessed during the era of the Vikings surely exist in Africa but it is still a challenge to transform Africa to the level of the Scandinavian countries. With proper organisation we shall be able to be more formal in our employment sector and benefit from the synergy created by this. Currently there is more interest in white collar jobs in Africa yet most African migrants to countries Europe consider themselves comfortable with Blue collar and other jobs. Organisation and objective identification of the real issues is what will liberate Africa.