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Urban Development

Promoting digital jobs in Pakistan

Sonia Madhvani's picture

Over the next several decades, Pakistan is poised to become the fourth most populous country in the world. With nearly 53 million active youth (under 25) and a high youth unemployment rate, the challenges of inclusion and empowerment of these young people will continue to grow. Gender disparities also persist with Pakistan having one of the lowest female labor force participation rates in the South Asia region. 

Boosting access to opportunities by connecting cities

Sonia Madhvani's picture

Connected cities use urban infrastructure and transportation networks to boost access to economic opportunities and job creation. In Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, a project recently analyzed the flows of people within the city’s network using cell phone data.  The study identified the most critical links in the urban transportation system that can connect people to jobs and businesses to markets. The project won the World Bank Group’s Fiscal Year 2018 Presidents Award for Excellence for using disruptive technology to collect data.

Can urban slums help people work their way out of poverty?

Ivan Turok's picture
Ivan Turok, guest blogger, is Executive Director at the Human Sciences Research Council in South Africa, Editor-in-Chief of the journal ‘Regional Studies’, Honorary Professor at the University of Glasgow, and Chairman of the City Planning Commission for Durban
The interactions between three phenomena - place, people and economy - are bound to exercise a decisive influence on whether informal settlements help or hinder human progress. Photo: Scott Wallace/ World Bank

About one in three urban residents (over 900 million people) in developing markets live in informal settlements. Do these slums help lift people out of poverty by providing affordable entry points to access urban assets, services and livelihoods? Or do they confine people to enduring hardship and vulnerability in squalid and unsafe environments with little prospect of upward mobility?

A tale of twin demographics: Youth in cities

Nicole Goldin's picture
60% of urban populations will be under the age of 18 by 2030.  How can we harness youth potential as a growth engine for cities? Photo: Arne Hoel/ World Bank

This week thousands of policy-makers, experts, NGOs and urban-minded citizens of all stripes are convening in Quito, Ecuador to discuss the New Urban Agenda at Habitat III – a significant global convening that occurs every 20 years. And, in a couple weeks, amid the costumes and candy, ghosts and goblins of Halloween, the world will mark UN World Cities Day on October 31st. For good reason, youth are part of the conversation.  In today’s global landscape, two demographic patterns should stand out:  rapid urbanization and large youth populations.  These patterns are especially robust across developing nations.  Already the worlds’ cities host half of its citizens, and Asia and Africa are expected to account for 90% of urban growth. While growing, cities have also become younger – many of the world’s nearly four billion people under the age of 30 live in urban areas, and according to UN-HABITAT, it is estimated that 60% of urban populations will be under the age of 18 by 2030.

Tourism energizes South Africa’s job market

Christopher Rooney's picture
Christopher Rooney, guest blogger, is a junior researcher at the Development Policy Research Unit at the University of Cape Town
Tourism in South Africa is seen as a driver for growth because of its linkages with other parts of the economy. Photo: Trevor Samson / World Bank

There is strong evidence that suggests that the South African tourism industry can help create a large number of secure, inclusive jobs. Despite the global financial crisis and a sector which competes on a global level, it created 48,000 jobs since 2008. Furthermore, many of these jobs are low-skilled, located in towns where there is not much other economic activity and have a higher-than-average representation of women and the youth. In addition, there are also opportunities for employees to increase their skills and their wages, so they do not remain in a low-wage, low productivity wage cycle permanently.

What our 10 best read blogs are telling us

Nicholas Charles Lord's picture
 Construction workers from Egypt are building stronger river banks along the Nile river to protect it from erosion. Photo © Dominic Chavez/World Bank

Summer is a time for reflection, for taking stock and seeing what is trending. So far this year, the Jobs Group has published 39 blogs on a wide range of topics. But what blogs have resonated most with our readers? Below you will find our most-read blog posts. In true top ten style, they are presented them in reverse order.

The jobs challenges of urbanization in India and Pakistan

Michael Kugelman's picture
Michael Kugelman, guest blogger, is the senior associate for South Asia at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC.
A busy train station in Mumbai, India. Photo: Simone D. McCourtie / World Bank

India and Pakistan are urbanizing at remarkably rapid rates. India’s urban population has increased from less than 20 percent of its overall population in 1951 to more than 30 percent today. In Pakistan, the share of the urban population—well under 20 percent in the 1960s, is more than a third today.

Looking at urbanization through a jobs lens

Javier Sanchez-Reaza's picture
There is an undeniable link between urbanization and job creation – but what exactly is the relationship, and how could the potential of unprecedented urbanization growth most benefit the world’s urban poor looking for jobs? Urbanization can lead to more, better and inclusive jobs in cities around the world. But recent urbanization trends, particularly in Africa, show that in many cases urbanization is taking place without job creation. Focusing on issues such as reducing spatial mismatches may provide policy options to affect positive labor market outcomes. This is the first in a series of upcoming blogs looking at the connections, the dynamics and the interactions between urbanization and jobs.
 

Urbanization, climate change and jobs in Africa

Anton Cartwright's picture
Concern about climate change is often deemed a luxury; the domain of those that do not have to worry about famine, surviving the pending winter, local conflict, or political instability. But in the next three decades, an anticipated 900 million people will be added to Africa’s cities: a tripling of the current urban population. The small affluent-class aside, the clarion call of Africa’s newly urban population is not around climate change or industrialization, but jobs and access to work.

Urbanization is Narrowing India’s Rural-Urban Wage Gap

Viktoria Hnatkovska's picture

Busy market area in Chennai, India. Photo credit: flickr @mckaysavage

The inequality between rural and urban locations is one of the largest contributing factors to the overall economic inequality in a country. Yet there are a lot of unanswered questions about the sources of this inequality, such as how structural transformation – namely the movement of labor from low productivity sectors like agriculture to higher productivity sectors like industry – affects the rural-urban divide. To shed light on this question, Amartya Lahiri (University of British Columbia) and I recently wrote a paper on what occurred in India between 1983 and 2010. Our findings highlight that over the past three decades, there has been a rapid wage convergence between urban and rural areas – with the fast growth of the urban labor force playing a major role.