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One question, eight experts, part six: William Dachs

William Dachs's picture

To gain a better understanding of how innovation in public-private partnerships (PPPs) builds on genuine learning, we reached out to PPP infrastructure experts around the world, posing the same question to each. Their honest answers redefine what works — and provide new insights into the PPP process. This is the question we posed: How can mistakes be absorbed into the learning process, and when can failure function as a step toward a PPP’s long-term success?

Our sixth response in this eight-part series comes from William Dachs, Chief Operating Officer of the Gautrain Management Agency in South Africa. 

South Africa's Gautrain.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

The ability of a national PPP program to apply lessons learned from one project to the next is dependent on factors such as the documentation of case studies and the use of a central repository of information in a PPP unit at the national level, where such lessons can be distilled and applied to the next project in that jurisdiction.

There are plenty of good examples of such programs that learn from and apply lessons. But how are individual PPP projects able to absorb mistakes and still meet the original objectives of value for money for the users of the services and the taxpayers who may ultimately bear the risk of the project failing?

It is impossible to predict the range of possible risks and to allocate these with precision over 20 to 25 years in a complex and changing environment. As such, the key to achieving long-term value from a PPP does not only lie in the quality of the feasibility and procurement phases, but also in how the balance of risk and rewards is established and applied in the PPP contract so as to be able to survive significant changes over a long period of time.

Global Daily: ECB ready to provide more stimulus

Global Macroeconomics Team's picture

Financial Markets

The European Central Bank (ECB) signaled readiness to provide more monetary stimulus to counter downside risks to growth and inflation.  Mario Draghi, the ECB president, said policy makers adjusted the parameters of their bond-buying program to allow for more purchases and lowered economic forecasts.  The ECB also left interest rate unchanged at record lows.

Emptying Indonesia’s toilets

Maraita Listyasari's picture
Communities in Indonesia have a saying about toilets: “a good sanitation system is a large leaking tank that will never need emptying.”  That is because most septic tanks are built under a concrete tank cover, often inside the house or directly under the toilet, without access to lids or manholes.  They often do not require emptying for many years.

If climate change is a human story, men are telling it.

Jing Guo's picture

harvesting wheatFrom extreme weather events to water shortages, reduced harvests, and increased spread of infectious diseases, climate change can affect human life in countless ways.  Climate change is not simply an environmental challenge. It is a human story, fundamentally about people.
 
However, climate change does not affect us equally. Compared to men, women are more vulnerable to its impacts, as women constitute 70% of the world’s impoverished population and are more dependent for their survival and livelihood on natural resources increasingly strained by climate change. 
 
Given these disproportionate effects on women, one would expect them to have an equal, if not greater, say in public discussions on climate change. Yet, in fact, their side of these stories have been mostly ignored.

The silenced crowd

Who was quoted on climate change?

In media coverage of climate change issues, women are often a neglected group. A recent report published by Media Matters unearthed a stark imbalance between men’s and women’s likelihood of being quoted in media coverage of the U.N. climate reports in 2014. The findings suggest that less than 15% of those quoted or interviewed in major print, broadcast, and cable outlets in the United States were female.

The gender gap in media reporting on climate change is perhaps more striking in developing countries. A new article (Frontline farmers, backline sources) in this month’s Feminist Media Studies shows that in Uganda, where 56% of women are farmers, both female sources and bylines are completely left out of page one, two, or three of the prominent newspapers when covering climate change topics.

Another unpleasant truth is that female sources are not only far less preferable than male sources (61%), but even less utilized than anonymous sources (20%).

What happens when women actually speak? Well, they are hardly considered the experts. 

Living with the ‘results agenda’, redux

Suvojit Chattopadhyay's picture

What is the 'results agenda' and how does it relate to transformational change within development? The recent publication of a report from The Independent Commission for Aid Impact (ICAI), which scrutinizes UK aid spending, has brought these questions to life once again.  Here are some takeaways on the report and the need for systems thinking, accountability, and flexibility from Suvojit Chattopadhyay.

ash transfer payments to women in Freetown, Sierra LeoneCraig Valters’ Devex post, based on yet another newsworthy ICAI report, seems to have somewhat revived the debate over the ‘results agenda'. The criticism is sharper, castigating DFID for the “unintended effect of focusing attention on quantity of results over their quality” – but also one that clearly implies that the ‘results agenda’ is not well-understood or widely shared within donors like DFID. Focusing on ‘results’ cannot mean a divorce from long-term outcomes. What ICAI describes sounds more like an outputs agenda that is transactional (what your money can buy) rather than transformative (the good change).

The consequence of this bean-counting is that complex problems risk being ignored: donors and the partners they fund will tend to focus on projects, rather than systems. Also, genuine accountability along the aid-chain takes a hit due to a general break-down of trust between the different actors. So what can we do about this?
 

When job contracts prevent productivity gains from new technology

Eric Verhoogen's picture

In his survey of soccer-ball producers in Pakistan, Columbia University’s Eric Verhoogen describes less-obvious hurdles to adoption of more efficient technologies—even when said technology is free to use and significantly cheaper than existing methods.  The chief culprit?  A misalignment of incentives between production-line workers paid on a piece-rate basis, and management staff who rely heavily on production workers to make technology recommendations.  Production-line workers cared more about speed than reducing waste, so management was kept in the dark about the new technology’s benefits, leading to low adoption rates.

Being the 'honest broker' for Ghana’s one-of-a-kind energy deal

Pankaj Gupta's picture
It’s not every day that oil and gas companies commit to an $8 billion project, even as commodity prices show no signs of stabilizing. Such a deal is even tougher to orchestrate in Ghana, where the macroeconomic situation has deteriorated in the past two years, resulting in the country’s restructuring program with the International Monetary Fund.
 
But such an operation did happen.
 
On July 30, the World Bank Group’s Board of Executive Directors approved the largest guarantee support—$700 million in total—in the 20-year history of the Bank’s IDA/IBRD guarantee program. The combination is unique—it draws together the part of the Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries with the arm that offers long-term loans to middle-income developing countries.
 
But its result is even more critical, and possibly a best practice for other countries to follow in the future.

 

Lessons from taxi industry to improve Romania’s governance

Ismail Radwan's picture
taxi in Romania
Photo: Daniel Kozak, World Bank


The first time I came to Bucharest in 2013 the Bank office offered to arrange a pick up from the airport. Being a seasoned traveler, I declined the offer. I reasoned that I had lived and worked in so many countries I could manage the transfer to the hotel without assistance. I was wrong.
 
I picked up my luggage to find a local cab outside the airport. A taxi driver offered me a ride. I didn’t negotiate the price upfront seeing that he had a meter in the car.
 
Twenty minutes later we reached the hotel. The meter read Lei 200 - at the that time about $60. That was over twice the going rate but there was little else I could do. I felt cheated as so many tourists do.
 
I learned from the experience, accepted offers of help from colleagues and paid more attention to rates going forward.
 
About a year later I returned to Bucharest to find a new system in place.  An electronic kiosk had been installed at the airport.  Arriving visitors could now press a button to get an estimated wait time to hail a taxi. I took my ticket. It was a smooth ride.
  
What made the difference? 
 
The new taxi ordering system is now available on mobile phones mirroring, in many ways, the service provided by Uber. Passengers can rate drivers and increase accountability.  
 
Bucharest has gone from being a difficult place to find an honest cab driver to one of the most convenient. 
 
The change has been driven by incentives and improved technology. 

 What are the implications for governance reform? 

Weekly wire: The global forum

Roxanne Bauer's picture
World of NewsThese are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.

 
Exporting corruption: Progress report 2015: Assessing enforcement of OECD Anti-bribery Convention
Transparency International
Transparency International’s 2015 Progress Report is an independent assessment of the enforcement of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD’s) Anti-Bribery Convention. The Convention is a key instrument for curbing global corruption because the 41 signatory countries are responsible for approximately two-thirds of world exports and almost 90 per cent of total foreign direct investment outflows. This is the 11th annual report. It has been prepared by Transparency International’s International Secretariat working with our national chapters and experts in the 41 OECD Convention countries. This report shows that there is Active Enforcement in four countries, Moderate Enforcement in six countries, Limited Enforcement in nine countries, and Little or No Enforcement in 20 countries. (Two countries were not classified.)

The Science of Inequality- What the numbers tell us
Special issue of Science Magazine
This special issue uses these fresh waves of data to explore the origins, impact, and future of inequality around the world. Archaeological and ethnographic data are revealing how inequality got its start in our ancestors. New surveys of emerging economies offer more reliable estimates of people's incomes and how they change as countries develop. And in the past decade in developed capitalist nations, intensive effort and interdisciplinary collaborations have produced large data sets, including the compilation of a century of income data and two centuries of wealth data into the World Top Incomes Database.  It is only a slight exaggeration to liken the potential usefulness of this and other big data sets to the enormous benefits of the Human Genome Project. Researchers now have larger sample sizes and more parameters to work with, and they are also better able to detect patterns in the flood of data.


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