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Do impact evaluations tell us anything about reducing poverty? Vol. II: The empire stagnates

Markus Goldstein's picture
This post is coauthored with Aletheia Donald
Four years ago, Markus looked at 20 impact evaluations and wrote a post concluding that most of them didn’t have much to say about reducing poverty (where was poverty was defined as expenditure, income, and/or wealth).  This summer Shanta Devarajan asked for an update on twitter, so here it is. 

The number of extremely poor people continues to rise in Sub-Saharan Africa

Divyanshi Wadhwa's picture

Globally, extreme poverty has rapidly declined. New poverty estimates by the World Bank suggest that the number of extremely poor people—those who live on $1.90 a day or less—has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to about 736 million in 2015.

However, the number of people living in extreme poverty is on the rise in Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising more than half of the extreme poor in 2015. Forecasts also indicate that by 2030, nearly 9 in 10 extremely poor people will live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Find more information and the latest poverty estimates at World Bank PovcalNet and Poverty & Equity Data portal.

 

Unlocking economic growth through integrated natural resource planning and governance

Loic Braune's picture
Photos: CAD Productions

Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in the West African Sahel, includes sparse and dry forests, woodlands, wooded and shrub savannas, and a large desert area to the North. The country relies heavily on agriculture, yet faces shrinking arable land and increasing soil degradation. Enhancing factors such as climate change and rising demand for land and natural resources in general are creating a downward cycle from which forest degradation appears as one of the particularly challenging consequences. It is also the first step towards soil degradation, which reduces the area of arable land, further increasing the pressures on the remaining land and forest resources.

Why understanding disaster risk matters for sustainable development

Sameh Wahba's picture

Risk financing, social protection, seismic risk, and open data – these are just some of the key themes that have drawn hundreds of urban resilience and disaster risk management experts and practitioners to Belgrade, Serbia this week for Understanding Risk (UR) Balkans.
 

New child and adolescent mortality estimates show remarkable progress, but 17,000 children under 15 still died every day in 2017

Emi Suzuki's picture

This blog is based on new mortality estimates released today by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME)

There has been remarkable progress in reducing mortality among children and young adolescents in the past several decades. Between 1990 and 2017, the global under-five mortality rate dropped by 58 percent from 93 deaths per 1,000 live births to 39 deaths per 1,000 live births. During the last 17 years, the reduction in under-five mortality rates accelerated to an average 4% annual reduction, compared to an average 1.9% annual reduction between 1990 and 2000. For children aged 5-14, mortality dropped by 53 percent, from 15 deaths to 7 deaths per 1,000 children.

Ten Years after Lehman: Where are we now?

Asli Demirgüç-Kunt's picture

The tenth anniversary of the collapse of Lehman Brothers is a good opportunity for us all to reflect on the global financial crisis and the lessons we have learned from it. By now, there is widespread agreement that the crisis was caused by excessive risk-taking by financial institutions. There were increases in leverage and risk-taking, which took the form of excessive reliance on wholesale funding, lower lending standards, inaccurate credit ratings, and complex structured instruments. But why did it happen? How could such a crisis originate in the United States, home to arguably the most sophisticated financial system in the world? At the time, my colleagues and I argued incentive conflicts were at the heart of the crisis and identified reforms that would improve incentives by increasing transparency and accountability in the financial industry as well as government. After all, if large, politically powerful institutions regularly expect to be bailed out if they get into trouble, it is understandable that their risk appetite will be much higher than what is socially optimal.

Should you oversample compliers if budget is limited and you are concerned take-up is low?

David McKenzie's picture

My colleague Bilal Zia recently released a working paper (joint with Emmanuel Hakizimfura and Douglas Randall) that reports on an experiment conducted with 200 Savings and Credit Cooperative Associations (SACCOs) in Rwanda. The experiment aimed to test two different approaches to decentralizing financial education delivery, and finds improvements are greater when Saccos get to choose which staff should be trained rather than when they are told to send the manager, a loan officer, and a board member.

One point of the paper that I thought might be of broader interest to our readers concerns the issue of what to do when you only have enough budget to survey a sample of a program’s beneficiaries, and you are concerned about getting enough compliers.

Beyond Infrastructure: Trade Facilitation Priorities for the Belt and Road Initiative

Marcus Bartley Johns's picture
Countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative face a major challenge in facilitating trade. While large investments in trade-related infrastructure capture global headlines, transaction costs generated by inefficient border clearance and trade-related regulatory requirements are one of the major policy risks facing the BRI.
 

The power of a label: Merit scholarships vs needs-based scholarships?

David Evans's picture



Labels matter. Girls who are reminded of stereotypes about how girls perform in math do worse on math exams (in some circumstances). Publicly revealing the caste of students in India led to worse performance of students from castes that were traditionally lower in the caste hierarchy. In the U.S., posting a banner with vegetables in the form of cartoon characters increased schoolchildren’s consumption of vegetables by 90 percent. These are all forms of labeling. New research suggests that labeling matters in school scholarships – merit-based versus needs-based – as well.

Improving urban transportation for upward social mobility in Malaysia

Wei San Loh's picture
Access to transportation is essential for improving the upward social mobility of low-income communities in Kuala Lumpur, especially residents of low-cost public housing units. (Photo: Samuel Goh/World Bank)

Over the years, Malaysia has demonstrated great improvements in enhancing upward social mobility as the country continues to advance toward becoming a developed nation. However, this success has not been evenly distributed among the population. A 2016 Khazanah Research Institute study found that 24% of children born to low-skilled parents in Malaysia remained low-skilled as adults. Likewise, 46% of children born to parents in the bottom 40% of the national income distribution remained in the bottom 40%.


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