Imagine there is a small fire in your house: someone forgot to put out a cigarette stub and accidentally set your rubbish bin on fire. You will need just one bucket of water to put it out.
But up the ante, and it is no longer possible for an individual to handle it. For instance, if your entire house was on fire, you would need to call your local fire station for help.
Now, go up one more level. You live in a thickly wooded part of a district like Badulla, and a forest fire covering hundreds of acres is threatening homes and businesses—then it would take the resources of the country, and maybe even aid and support from international allies, to battle the fire and help people recover.
I am telling you this story to illustrate how there are levels of risks—and responses—to consider when discussing a subject like integrated risk management.
As part of our work on the recently released Sri Lanka Development Update (SLDU) we considered the risks and opportunities facing Sri Lanka, beginning from the smallest unit of the household and building up to the country, as represented by the public sector.
There’s been a lot of talk about the macro-economy and national level reforms and policy initiatives. However, in this blog I wanted to focus on your families. What does integrated risk management mean for households?
The poorest Sri Lankan families are vulnerable to shocks
2018 is here, and we hope your new year is off to a positive start! Thank you for being a part of the global movement to help end poverty. For every like, share, “heart”, retweet, you name it, thanks for engaging with our content!
Every year brings new highlights, challenges, and priorities, and 2017 was no different.:
Twitter:for themselves or their loved ones. So unsurprisingly, you showed strong support for #HealthforAll during the Universal Health Coverage Forum in December.
What's one big reason families around the world fall into #poverty? #Health expenses. To reach the #globalgoals, we must achieve #HealthforAll. Join us at #UHCForum https://t.co/fl9GYMMBeH pic.twitter.com/LEAkSpeffQ— World Bank (@WorldBank) December 10, 2017
We were also very impressed to see how strongly you feel about preserving our planet. During last month’s One Planet Summit, several of you replied to the news of the World Bank’s announcement on phasing out financing of oil and gas exploration, with positivity. For example @RalienBekkers said: “Great, everyone should follow”:
Many of you agreed that women shouldn’t be restricted from doing some jobs, just because they are women:
Before we begin new posts next week, here are the 2017 Development Impact posts that were most popular over the last year. In this case, popular = most page views.
- 10 journals for publishing a short economics paper
- When should you cluster standard errors? New wisdom from the econometrics oracle
- What’s the latest in development economics research? A round-up of 140+ papers from NEUDC 2017
- The State of Development Journals 2017: Quality, Acceptance Rates, and Review Times
- Fact checking universal basic income: can we transfer our way out of poverty?
- What’s new in education research? Impact evaluations and measurement – March round-up
- The latest research in economics on Africa: The CSAE round-up
- IE analytics: introducing ietoolkit
- Technoskeptics pay heed: A computer-assisted learning program that delivers learning results
- A new answer to why developing country firms are so small, and how cellphones solve this problem
- top ten
Agriculture prices declined marginally, as a 5 percent decline in beverages, led by cocoa (down 10 percent) outweighed a 2 percent increase in raw materials prices, led by cotton (up 6 percent) and natural rubber (up 5 percent). Fertilizer prices declined 5 percent, led by a 11 percent drop in urea.
Metals and mineral prices gained less than 1 percent. A large gain in iron ore (up 12 percent) was offset by declines in zinc and nickel. Precious metals prices declined 2 percent, led by a 1 percent decline in gold.
The pink sheet is a monthly report that monitors commodity price movements.
Editor's note: This blog post is part of a series for the 'Bureaucracy Lab', a World Bank initiative to better understand the world's public officials.
Photo: © Gennadiy Ratushenko / World Bank
Bureaucratic structures are complex. A given country’s norms and values can be difficult to comprehend for outsiders trying to engage in governance reform there. How can anthropologists help us understand the dynamics of a bureaucracy or government organization?
In rural Tanzania, more than seven million citizens lack reliable access to clean water. At any given time, 46 percent of rural water points need repair. An all too easy way to rationalize government shortcomings would be to label officials as lazy or corrupt. However, this statement oversimplifies the issue at hand and fails to dive deeper into the underlying bureaucratic structures that hinder successful service delivery.
- Lia Fernald and co-authors have a toolkit for measuring early childhood development – “The ECD Measurement Inventory that accompanies this Toolkit contains 147 measurement tools for children under 8 years. For each test it reports the domains assessed, age range for which the tool is appropriate, method of administration, purpose of the assessment, origin and locations of use, logistics, and cost.”
- Cyrus Samii has a nice “selection of amazing papers from 2017” – advances in causal inference, work on generalizability, and great examples of field studies. And Cal Women of Econ have a round-up of papers on gender and racial disparities in economics and the workforce.
- development impact links
Photo: DFID | Flickr Creative Commons
Health is one of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, it is not feasible for any country, rich or poor, to provide its entire population with all needed health services. Accordingly, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the healthcare gap, as it contributes financial resources, innovation, and expertise.
The managed equipment services (MES) arrangement, used in Kenya, is one way to do this. MES is a business model emerging in Kenya’s healthcare system involving partnerships between the private sector and public healthcare providers that offers solutions to some of the challenges posed by the dynamic healthcare industry.
Climate change poses a significant threat to the economic development of countries around the world. – in part due to a combination of higher agricultural prices and threats to food security and health – especially in the poorer parts of the world. The Paris Agreement and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have provided commitments to tackle the most urgent of these environmental challenges.
Maintaining and restoring ocean ecosystems – or ‘ocean health’ – is synonymous with growing ‘ocean wealth,’ according to a soon-to-be published report by the World Bank and European Union. With rapid population growth, limited land and fewer terrestrial resources to house, feed and provide citizens with their energy needs, coastal nations across South Asia are looking seaward. In doing so, countries are clueing in on the fact that sustainably managing and developing ocean spaces is critical to a nation’s economic advancement.
Thinking Blue - thinking how best to sustainably tap ocean spaces as new sources of sustainable growth and transition to a blue economy - is new, although South Asian nations have used the sea for food and trade for centuries.
Five years ago, the term ‘blue economy’ had nothing to do with oceans; few had an inkling of its emerging importance.
In late 2017, at the Second International Blue Economy Dialogue hosted by the Government of Bangladesh in Dhaka, interest in what the blue economy is and why it matters is at an all-time high and rising. Perhaps this not surprising.
Our Top Ten blog posts by readership in 2017. This post was originally posted on February 27, 2017.
“It makes me a little crazy when you keep saying systems.” – Jowhor Ile, in And After Many Days
At home, we have a porchlight at the entrance to our house. If I flip the switch for that light, there is about a 50-50 chance it will turn on. The reason? There is another switch in the basement that controls the electricity flow to the porch, and the porchlight will only come on if both switches are on.
This – slightly adapted – analogy came from Justin Sandefur at the Center for Global Development, in an effort to explain what a systems approach is and how it can improve development programming.
If you’re like us, there is so much talk about systems that it can be easy to get lost. At a recent event, we asked a mixed group of operational teams and researchers, “How confident are you that you know what a systems approach is?” Nearly 40 percent had little to no idea.
How confident are you that you know what a systems approach is?
To take education as an example, a systems approach to education recognizes the following:
1. An education system is made up of different actors (students, teachers, administrators, political leaders), accountability relationships (management, politics), and design elements (financing, information) (see Pritchett or Scur).
2. Changes to one part of the system are moderated by other parts of the system. For example, the effectiveness of investments to get children to school will be limited (or enhanced) by the quality of the schooling.
3. A change to one part of the system leads to changes in other parts of the system: increased public provision of school supplies won’t increase learning if parents subsequently reduce their pre-existing investments in school supplies, as indicated by what happened in India and Zambia (Das et al.).
A systems approach seeks to explicitly take these separate components and their interlinking movements into account.
Three models demonstrate how a systems approach can apply at each point in the reform process: One identifies the current performance of each element of the system, one answers questions of what happens as elements of that system change, and one seeks to leverage this information to improve reforms.