Mongolian Cashmere: Softer than a baby’s bottom


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Goats Before I came to Mongolia, I thought the softest thing in the world was the rear end of a baby. But that was before I visited the Gobi Cashmere factory, where I saw the production process from smelly goat hair to high-quality clothes. It’s hard to believe that the scraggy goats you see in the countryside are the source of Mongolia’s fabulous cashmere products, but it’s true. Somehow, the tough conditions of Mongolia lead to incredible, wearable softness.

Mongolia is the second largest producer of raw cashmere, after China. Estimates vary, but Mongolia produces about 20 percent of global supply. China produces about 70 percent. The rest comes from Afghanistan, Iran, India, Pakistan and Central Asia. In spite of this, Mongolia hasn’t succeeded—at least not yet—in branding its top-quality cashmere.

Spinning machines The Gobi Cashmere factory is a sprawling, 10 hectare complex, with endless corridors. The Director, Mr Baatarsaikhan, is an energetic man, the kind of person who runs up stairs two steps at a time. He claims to walk at least 10 kilometers a day within the factory, and I believe him. He’s also visibly excited about his products, and with good reason. They’re simply beautiful.
Cashmere supply is limited. All goats produce it, but in most places it’s not good enough to process. In Mongolia, cashmere fibers are especially long and fine, and make good-quality yarn and thread. The harsh climate must make a difference. In Australia, attempts to produce cashmere with Mongolian goats failed. Mild weather and good nutrition somehow led to coarser cashmere; I guess you can’t pamper your goats.

The raw material is combed out of the goats every spring. It consists of cashmere, which is the soft, insulating undercoat that protects goats from the cold, and coarse outer hair.  First it’s sorted by color and roughly by grade. Dirt and the coarsest hair are removed. All by hand. Only then do machines come in, for scouring, drying, and de-hairing (the combing process that separates fine cashmere from the rough stuff).

Dehairing It’s amazing to watch the clean, de-haired cashmere coming out of the combing machine. It looks like puffed-up spider webs. It’s so soft that you can hardly tell you’re touching something physical. These cashmere clouds are dyed into brilliant colors, spun into yarns and thread, and finally knitted or woven into well-designed, stylish garments. No wonder Mr. Baatarsaikhan is so proud.

I once took my wife there to the Gobi outlet store. It was like dropping a hungry piranha into a tank of goldfish. She tore through the place, buying sweaters, hats, scarves, blankets, dresses, and even a roll of yarn. As she pointed out, cashmere makes a great gift, since it’s always appreciated and easy to carry in a suitcase.

With demand and exports down, the sector is struggling. It especially affects herders, who have seen prices fall from $40 per kilogram to under $25. But I’m sure that Mongolia’s cashmere industry will survive. As long as my wife’s in the country, at least.

As fashionable as Champs-Élysées, but 1/10th the price


It's time to go to Gobi


Hard at work in the Gobi Cashmere factory



David Lawrence

Communications Consultant

July 22, 2009

Good to know we get quality clothes from a remote part of the world! Hope your stay in Mongolia revives the cashmere industry.

Mary Simpson
July 26, 2010

You are so right that Mongolia does produce some of the finest Cashmere in the world. I am an avid Cashmere wearer, and found a Cashmere Clothing Company that gets their raw materials from Gobi, and I have been totally satisfied with every piece of Cashmere I have purchased from them.

I have several pieces of cashmere made elsewhere in the world, and the feel and quality is not the same as that produced by Gobi in Mongolia.

December 07, 2010

Unfortunately, cheap, unecological Chinese cashmere takes 60 percent of the world cashmere sale. Mongolian cashmere factories are still trying to get their name known in the world. It is pity we do not give much publicity to recognise luxurious product

Binod Rai
September 10, 2021

I've visited the Gobi store on every visit I'm in Mongolia to lead groups of tourists, their products have made excellent gifts and I've never come across anything of such quality before. I'm looking into promoting Mongolian Cashmere in the future !