Long one of the world’s most unequal countries, Brazil surprised pundits by recording a massive reduction in household income inequality in the last couple of decades. Between 1995 and 2012, the…

Francisco Ferreira, Sergio Firpo, Julián Messina |

From a normative perspective, we can all agree that child labor is reprehensible and should be banned, particularly in its worst forms. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO),…

Caio Piza, Andre Portela Souza |

Productive inclusion is the buzzword taking shape in social policy circles in Latin America, and other middle income countries. Graduation out of social assistance does not equate with (or presume…

Emanuela Galasso |

Turkey’s bid to join the European Union (EU) may finally be getting “back on track, ” according to the bloc’s top official for enlargement. And while that track may still have a number of hurdles…

Donald F. Larson, Miles McKenna |

When economists think about price shocks, they consider how a change in price will affect the supply and demand of a product. But when that product is human – i.e., a worker – interpreting the…

Elizabeth Ruppert Bulmer, Claire H. Hollweg |

Editor's Note: "Notes From the Field" is an occasional feature where we let World Bank professionals conducting interesting trade-related projects around the globe explain some of…

Miles McKenna |

Conflict is a major cause of poverty in the developing world today. In addition to endangering lives, conflict disrupts the functioning of an economy in many ways. It destroys infrastructure,…

Massimiliano Calì, Julia Oliver |