Bruce MacPhail is a Senior Social Development Specialist in the Social Sustainability and Inclusion Global Practice of the World Bank. Since joining the World Bank, he has worked on programs focusing on community and local development, gender-based violence, the social dimensions of climate change and works on social risk management across sectors. He has worked in several countries spanning four regions including Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Europe and Central Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. Bruce holds an M.A. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.