Elizabeth Ruppert Bulmer is a Lead Economist with the World Bank Group. She has extensive operational and research experience in Latin America, the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, East Asia, and particularly in fragile states. Her research interests span labor issues and their links with growth, trade, and worker welfare. She is currently leading the informality agenda within the World Bank’s Jobs CCSA. She has published in the Journal of Development Economics and the World Bank Economic Review, among others. She holds a PhD in economics from the University of Maryland.