Sole Martinez Peria is the Division Chief of the Macro-Financial Division of the Research Department. She is currently on leave from the World Bank, where she was Research Manager of the Finance and Private Sector Development Team within the Development Research Group. Her published work has focused on access to finance, bank financing for SMEs, the determinants of currency and banking crises, depositor market discipline, financial inclusion, foreign bank participation in developing countries, the impact of remittances on financial development and the spread of the Global Financial Crisis. Prior to joining The World Bank in 1998, Sole worked at the Brookings Institution, the Central Bank of Argentina, the Federal Reserve Board, and the International Monetary Fund. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley and a B.A. from Stanford University.