Thomas Lammer joined the World Bank Group’s Payment Systems Development Group in 2013 and since then has been working on payment systems reforms in a number of countries, with focus on Africa and South East Asia. He contributes to financial inclusion initiatives, e.g. the Payments Aspects of Financial Inclusion Task Force, the Universal Financial Access 2020 agenda, and the ITU Focus Group on Digital Financial Services. His current policy work focuses on payment innovations and the costs of retail payments. From 2008-2013 he was Market Infrastructure Expert at the European Central Bank, contributing e.g. to the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) project and the European Forum for the Security of Retail Payments. From 2001-2008 he managed the implementation of several payment projects for the Austrian Central Bank. He graduated from the Vienna University for Economics and Business, was a visiting expert at Banca d’Italia and is the author of books and articles on payment services.