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World Population Day 2017: What can we learn from Bangladesh?

Maitreyi Bordia Das's picture
Mom and daughter at a community health center outside Dhaka,
Bangladesh. Photo: Rama George-Alleyne / World Bank

Today marks World Population Day and this year’s theme is “Family Planning: Empowering People, Developing Nations”. It is an opportune moment to reflect and continue the conversation on demographic trends that I started through my blog on fertility decline last month.

Close on the heels of my blog, a New York Times article asserted that the “population bomb” was ticking for Lesotho and that, along with a series of droughts, it would all but take the country down. Although this Ehrich-eque formulation acknowledges Lesotho’s fertility decline since the 1970s, it still places “population growth” as the source of many ills.   No doubt fertility levels in Lesotho are still high, underscoring the importance of accessible contraception for women. But Lesotho simply does not deserve the epithet of a “cursed nation” that the article confers upon it.

Author’s representation using UN data

The New York Times article on Lesotho brought me back to the specter of doom that was created around Bangladesh at its birth in 1971, when it earned the epithet of “basket case” from Henry Kissinger.  By halving its fertility rate from a high of 6.3 children per woman between 1971 and 2004, Bangladesh showed the world that neo-Malthusian predictions don’t usually stand up to empirical scrutiny. 
While Bangladesh’s success in fertility decline has already been well-covered, it deserves repeating.  That’s because it holds a lesson for both high fertility countries in Africa and for those who portend a future of doom for those countries. 

In 2008, we wrote about how Bangladesh achieved its successes in fertility decline and other attendant outcomes, in a report on gender and social transformation in the country.  We noted that a robust family planning program provided door-step delivery of contraceptives to women who had traditionally been in seclusion. Female health workers, specifically recruited and trained for the purpose, went house to house, educating women and distributing contraceptives.  As a result, the use of contraception in Bangladesh rose from a mere 8 percent in 1975 to over 61 percent in 2011. Some studies have also made the link between the microcredit movement which relied on women’s groups that could be easily reached by family planning workers.  These groups were a ready vehicle for the dissemination of the idea of smaller families, contraceptive use and peer learning.
Access to birth control gives women more than control over their fertility – it gives them control over their lives and it gives them choice.  In Bangladesh, control over childbearing improved both women’s health and the health of their children. 
The government also implemented other programs in tandem – all with the objective of overall improvement in human development. For example, a successful immunization program kept children healthier and their mothers freer.  A total sanitation drive that had salutary impact on health, hygiene and privacy.  A drive against diarrhea was undertaken partly to control epidemics that followed extreme weather events like floods and cyclones that – unfortunately a regular feature in Bangladesh.   And an increase in girls’ education meant that younger mothers were better able to care for themselves and their children, compared to previous generations. 
In many ways, Bangladesh’s demographic transition was also a consequence of unanticipated events and the policy response to them.  The catastrophic famine of 1974 for instance, was a turning point in social policy.  From 1975, famine prevention emerged as a policy priority and led, among other things, to investments in rural infrastructure, that served as social safety nets during the lean season or during natural disasters.  As a result, the country developed a large network of rural roads.  This meant women could now travel to secure healthcare, education and markets. 
Finally, while Bangladesh’s famed non-government organizations (NGOs) are often credited with its successes in women’s empowerment and overall human development, an enabling state provided both the political space and the policy architecture for NGOs to function. The partnership made for the successes which Bangladesh builds upon today, and from which Lesotho, Uganda and fragile states can learn.  On World Population Day, the world would do well to look at the example of Bangladesh, where family planning went hand in hand with women’s empowerment more generally.


Submitted by Leena Sieviläinen on

Great job done

Submitted by Dave Gardner on

I expect those who offer the warnings the author characterizes here as "doom" are glad when those warnings are heeded and a country avoids a destructive path by getting serious about bringing down fertility rates. The fact that action was taken and doom avoided or delayed doesn't render the warnings unfactual or unuseful.

Submitted by Joy Jacob on


Submitted by Dr.Mohamed Taher Abdelrazik Hamada, Ph.D on

Certainly, fertility rate should match the income of the family,
socially and economically . Poverty is a real element to think about lowering fertility rate , but in developing world , rich people have two or three kids ,but poor families have seven to eight kids , this phenomena is due to lack of education , this phenomena deserves to be tackled by world family planning agencies
as illustrated in Bangldesh case in order to have well educated and healither families, and to achieve a satisfactory human development.
Yours Very Respectfully,
Dr. Mohamed Taher Abdelrazik Hamada, Ph.D
Retired Professor at Strayer University, USA
4 Mohamed Koriem, St.
Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
Cell Phone 00101061068855
Home Phone 0010473224392

Submitted by SHOUVIK DATTA on

Yes, roads do enable women to travel around, on often overcrowded buses. I learnt whilst travelling from Darjeeling to Kolkata, that Bangladesh has major issues with India's Farraka Barrage system as well.

Submitted by Dinesh kumar on

Hey [Worldbank]
I’ll find a great stuff on your article, it really means a lot, Apart from your celebration ideas I also have an idea which I want to share with you.
well, the idea of celebrating population day is :-
” the world is growing, but until you decide to contribute to that growth by havin’ yourself some offspring, some risk-free self-lovin’ is a great way to celebrate World Population Day 2018

Submitted by Thakurdas Vaihnav on

Lately, so many useful discussions were held on the occasion of the World Environment Day: carbon emission, hole in the ozone layer, limited availability of natural resources on earth, intolerable pollution levels in the air, land and water. Increasing greenery, protection of rivers and other water sources and development of non-traditional energy sources were also discussed. Infect everything concerning environment was discussed at length.
But surprisingly there was no talk about controlling the alarming rate of population increase which is the root of most of the problems facing the environment. We all know very well that population control is the matter of life and death for us but we prefer to remain silent over the issue. Strangely we avoid talking about it in the public, it is high time we wake up and leave this ostrich type of mentality and behavior.

Recently horrifying events of serious environmental degradation have given us clear message and warning that it is unable to bear anymore load of pollution. Only about 20-25 years ago people used to laugh to hear that in near future they were going to face scarcity. Today we are face to face with water shortage even for drinking and people are crying for water. Same way, we are now careless about population control issue. IF we don’t wake up now conditions are going to get out of hand and from bad to worse. It’s time to talk, discuss, debate freely and make legislation on population control.

Times have changed, today people from all walk of life, societies, communities understand fully importance and advantages of limited small family. The government should immediately take concrete steps to control population. All the countries of the world which are faced with the problem of fast growing population are making efforts in their own way to deal with the problem. The steps taken by China are very well known and in this way the country has ensured its future and uninterrupted development.

Special mention must be made of a Muslim country Indonesia. The earnest efforts of this country to control population are remarkably and worthy of emulation.

Submitted by billy on

yes sir

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