As the spread of COVID-19 expands in less developed countries, policymakers will face an additional challenge that was largely absent in more developed economies – the informal sector.

Gemechu Ayana Aga, Filip Jolevski, Silvia Muzi |

The World Bank Group’s Enterprise Surveys (ES) evaluate the quality of the business environment in an economy by asking a series of questions that capture both the experiences and perceptions of…

David Francis, Asif Islam |

It is well established that financial development is necessary for the efficient allocation of capital and firm growth, yet firm-level surveys have repeatedly found access to finance to be among…

Leora Klapper |

Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) account for close to 60 percent of global manufacturing employment. So it is no surprise that financing for SMEs has been a subject of great interest to…

Asli Demirgüç-Kunt |