As the spread of COVID-19 expands in less developed countries, policymakers will face an additional challenge that was largely absent in more developed economies – the informal sector.

Gemechu Ayana Aga, Filip Jolevski, Silvia Muzi |

The World Bank’s Enterprise Survey program is not just about surveying formal firms. In some countries (such as Mozambique, Zimbabwe & Lao DPR), they now also conduct surveys of informal firm…

Kathleen Beegle, Markus Goldstein |

Released in 2013, the Bangladesh Enterprise Survey asked more than 1,400 business managers whether In your experience of hiring employees, do any of the following constrain the hiring of women?…

Andy Kotikula, Asif Islam |

In Mozambique’s three largest cities (Maputo, Beira, and Nampula), informal businesses—those operating outside formal licensing and registration procedures—outnumber formal firms by a factor of 9…

Filip Jolevski, Gemechu Ayana Aga |

Recent World Bank investment climate surveys find that the top two constraints for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Africa are access to finance and access to energy. Given that SMEs…

Simon Bell, Malcolm Cosgrove-Davies, Jonathan Coony |