Bangladesh: The challenges of living in a delta country


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Deltas are often described as cradles of civilization. They are the testing grounds for early agriculture and the birthplace of hydraulic engineering as we attempted to shape the landscape to suit our needs.

Deltas are the unique result of the interaction of rivers and tidal processes resulting in the largest sedimentary deposits in the world. Although comprising only 5% of the land area, deltas have up to 10 times higher than average population—a number, which is increasing rapidly, especially for deltas in Asia.

Low lying, deltas are widely recognized as highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise and changes in runoff, as well as being subject to stresses imposed by human modification of catchment and delta plain land use.

Catchment developments, as well as population and economic growth have had a profound impact on all deltas. These heavily farmed environments and their populations are increasingly vulnerable to a growing risk of pollution, coastal floods, wetland loss, shoreline retreat and loss of infrastructure. Each year, tens of millions of people are flooded due to storm surges alone.

The major part of Bangladesh lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBM Delta). It is Asia's largest and the world’s most populated delta[1] and encompasses approximately 100,000 km2 of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.  Many of the country’s people depend on the delta for survival and 156 million people live there, despite the floods caused by monsoons, heavy runoff, and tropical cyclones.

 Economic growth has pulled 16 million out of poverty in the last 10 years. Still, more than 30 million people in the Delta live below the poverty line and are increasingly vulnerable[2].

Dhaka and Chittagong and Khulna are home to industrial complexes—which are important for economic growth and employment.  However, these industries are also a major source of water pollution. The chemical load entering the Bay of Bengal from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, for example, has been estimated in excess of 135 million tons per year[3].

Nearly every year, cyclones hit the country’s coastal regions in the early summer (April–May) or late rainy season (October–November). Between 1877 and 1995, Bangladesh was hit by 154 cyclones—including 43 severe cyclonic storms and 68 tropical depressions—or one severe cyclone every three years creating storm surges that are sometimes in excess of 10 meters[4].

The country is heavily reliant on the monsoon. It carries nearly 80 percent of the country’s annual precipitation during the summer monsoon season. A buoyant monsoon heralds bountiful harvests and financial security, yet when the monsoons fail, or are excessive, suffering and economic loss is widespread.
Resilient, sustained social and economic development in the delta requires the capability to cope with sea level rise, salinization of soil and water, storms and floods compounded by climate change on the one-hand, and industrialization, population growth and rapid urbanization on the other. This challenge requires an adaptive approach to delta management.

In our next blogs in this delta series we will write about specific delta dynamics and opportunities and also how the Government of Bangladesh with the World Bank, the IFC with the 2030 water resources group are responding to the challenges in this unique delta country.

[1] Ericson, J.P., C.J. Vorosmarty, S.L. Dingman, L.G. Ward, and M. Meybeck. 2005. Effective sea-level rise and deltas: Causes of change and human dimension implications. Global Planetary Change 50:63-82.
[2] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2010): Income, expenditure and poverty data.
[3] Hassan, Daud, 2006. Protecting the marine environment from land-based sources of pollution. Towards effective international cooperation. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
[4] Dasgupta, S., Huq, M., Khan, Z.Q., Ahmed, M., Mukkherjee, N., Khan, M., Pandey, K. (2011) Cyclones in a Changing Climate. The Case of Bangladesh


Lia Sieghart

Practice Manager, World Bank

David Rogers

David Rogers, Ph.D. President of Health and Climate Foundation

Bari Miah
May 23, 2015

It is really an unique write up particularly on delta perspectives, we will be waiting to see the more future article on its Challenges and opportunities

Mahina Arefin
May 21, 2015

Dear Lia,
I nice article on Bangladesh.A lot can be done in this Delta region indeed.
If correctly handled with long term vision this delta can really contribute to the earth in many ways.

June 03, 2015

Dear Mahina thanking you for the acknowledgement and I agree with you - adaptive delta management will be key in managing Asia's largest and the world's most populated delta. Best wishes, Lia

subhashis chatterjee
January 09, 2016

well said. a longterm sustainable and climate proof investments could make a socio-economic change.good attention required only.

May 21, 2015

Well described true picture. I think rivers are getting dead specially in the northern parts that must be a matter of great worry snd concern.

Angela M Fonseca
June 02, 2015

Dear Lia,
This is a very nice article with great illustrations. Look forward to reading new blogs on the subject.

Kofi Awanyo
June 02, 2015

Lia. Well written! Will share with my collegues in Ghana who live on wetlands with similar issues. Sakumono and Korle.

June 03, 2015

Dear Kofi
Thanking you and I look forward to hearing more about the experience from our colleagues in Africa - best wishes, Lia

Md. Taibur Rahman
June 06, 2015

Dear Lia,
Thank you very much for a well written article and sensitizing the readers about the challenges of Bangladesh Delta.
I am happy that World Bank has come forward to pursue adaptive delta management in our country. With the support of the large development partners like WB it would be easier for us to implement Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 which is being currently prepared by the Bangladesh Planning Commission with technical and financial support from the Dutch government.
I would be happy to provide my support in any relevant initiative (e.g. blogging or establishing community of practice or else) in this regard.

Dr Md Nasir Uddin
November 15, 2015

Hi Lia:
Good to read your brilliant piece. Would be happy if you could take the trouble to share your future write ups on Bangladesh delta.
With warm personal regards,
Dr Nasir
Former Joint Secretary
Ministry of Environment and ForestD

MD. Nazibur Rahman Babu
March 26, 2018

Hi Lia,
Thank you for your very informative post on Bangladesh delta. We about 165 million people live in delta successfully. But Recently India and also China is building numerous dams upstream and diverting the water. These will obstruct the natural flow of the Ganges and Brahmaputra. India constructed a Dam named Farakkah on the Ganges river and China wants to built hydro project on Brahmaputra river. India is already diverting waters from the Ganges river upstream in the name of keeping the hoogly river navigable. These will only bring misery to us living downstream. India usually opens all the gates of the dam during the moonson causing severe flood.
I hope you will include this in your research also.
MD. Nazibur Rahman

May 16, 2021


Md. Sarafat Hossain Khan
May 16, 2021

Dear Lia

Thank you for your fantastic post on Bangladesh Delta. This is clearly synthesized about the delta of Bangladesh in a changing climatic condition. We always talking about SLR, salinization and storm induced tidal flooding, but not about fresh water flow during dry season which is a major concern for salinization of soil and water in changing climate. We have a high supply season of water and high demand in dry season, but more challenges how we integrate it. Adaptive delta management should look into this. We are waiting for your new blogs.

Kind regards

(Md. Sarafat Hossain Khan)
Sr. Water Resources Specialist
IWM, Dhaka, Bangladesh

May 16, 2021

Great piece. What really concerns me is the fact that there are actually not any NGOs trying to help these delta areas. Any reason why this lack of NGOs?