Policymakers often associate competitiveness with real exchange rates. Not too long ago, firms in Southern European countries attributed their difficulties to compete in global markets with a…

Gonzalo Varela, Stefania Lovo |

“Ask anyone you meet on the street whether political risk has risen in the last few years, and you’d likely get a convincing yes, ” a high official from Canada’s Export Development Center recently…

Laura Gómez-Mera, Gonzalo Varela |

International trade has a critical role to play in environmental protection and the effort to mitigate climate change. While it certainly isn’t always framed this way, it is important to realize…

Miles McKenna, Jaime de Melo, Mariana Vijil |

For those of our readers who were anxious to learn more about how "Non-Tariff Measures Raise Food Prices and Hinder Regional Integration in Central America", the working paper has now…

Miles McKenna |

Concerns over climate change took center stage at this year’s World Bank annual meetings. The message was clear: there doesn’t have to be a tradeoff between economic growth and a cleaner,…

Harun Onder, Miles McKenna |

It is July 2012 and cattle farmers in Nicaragua are worried because Guatemala has enacted a series of laws that restrict beef trade. These so-called “non-tariff measures, ” or NTMs, require that…

Jose Daniel Reyes, Maria Jose Gonzalez Rivas |