It is critical for governments and entrepreneurs to act, rather than wait for an unpredictable 'black swan' event. Proactive regulatory measures and the implementation of essential…

Klaus Koch-Saldarriaga |

Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Rapid increase in defaults poses a threat to financial stability of the two economies. From a social standpoint, excessive debt can decrease households’ disposable…

Fernando Dancausa, Martin Melecky |

The 2020s have been an era of shocks: COVID-19, inflation, climate change, and social unrest are merely the most prominent among them. In developing countries, cities have not been effective shock…

Somik Lall, Jon Kher Kaw, Ban Edilbi |

Schools throughout the world closed in response to COVID-19 beginning in 2020. In a few cases, they quickly reopened, but in some countries, they remained closed far longer.

Maciej Jakubowski, Tomasz Gajderowicz, Harry A. Patrinos |

Our new paper “Free compulsory education can mitigate COVID-19 disruptions’ adverse effects on child schooling” focuses on the role of pre-existing policies, such as free compulsory education laws…

Marco Tiberti, Luca Tiberti, Sylvain Dessy, Horace Gninafon |

ASEAN countries have made limited investments in the development and manufacture of vaccines and biologicals.

Giles Newmarch, Ronald Upenyu Mutasa |

At the outset of the crisis, policymakers faced uncertainty regarding the impacts and distributional effects of the unfolding economic shock. Key questions included how the crisis affected the…

Carolina Diaz-Bonilla, David Newhouse, Michael Weber |

Children in Lebanese public schools have experienced four consecutive disrupted academic years (2019-20 to 2022-23), receiving approximately 270 days of in-person teaching compared with the 600…

Adelle Pushparatnam, Igor Kheyfets, Hana El-Ghali, Nadine El Franji |

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers across the globe unleashed unprecedented amounts of fiscal stimulus to counter the sharpest decline in global growth.

Franz Ulrich Ruch, Haroon Mumtaz |

The series of global shocks in recent years that started with the COVID-19 pandemic and was compounded by a cost-of-living crisis has brought widespread turmoil to lives and livelihoods, with far-…

Yeon Soo Kim, Jeffery Tanner |