Carolyn Fischer is Research Manager of the Sustainability and Infrastructure Team in the Development Research Group of the World Bank. Her research addresses issues of technical change, trade, and emissions leakage in environmental policy instrument design. She was previously appointed professor of environmental economics at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, held the Canada 150 Research Chair in Climate Economics, Innovation and Policy at University of Ottawa, and was the Marks Visiting Professor at Gothenburg University. She enjoys research fellow affiliations with Resources for the Future and the CESifo Research Network. She has served on the boards of both the American and European Associations of Environmental and Resource Economists, as well as expert advisory councils for research institutes in Europe and in North America, and is co-editor of Environmental and Resource Economics. She earned her Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.