Can agriculture create job opportunities for youth?


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Many good job opportunities on and off the farm remain in agriculture. Can agriculture provide job opportunities for youth? 

Technology and the internet are probably the first things that come to mind when you think about the future of work for young people; not agriculture or farming. This makes historic sense, as agriculture sheds labor when countries develop. And the traditional ways of producing food do not look particularly sexy. Yet, technology and the internet are also opening up opportunities for agriculture, and urbanization and changing diets are calling for new ways to process, market and consume our foods. So, can agriculture provide job opportunities for youth?

Fewer but better jobs in farming

First, undoubtedly, the share of farming jobs is shrinking. This is normal. As countries urbanize and incomes rise, food expenditures decline as a share of total spending. To help produce these other goods and services, farmers take up jobs off the farm. Yet the process can only be sustained if labor productivity in farming increases, through innovation in production as well as better access to markets to sell the surplus. ICT is helping with both.

Take automation. The lack of mechanization in Africa has long puzzled many observers, who, given the region’s current population density and market access, had long expected to see much more mechanization on the continent. Yet, there are now signs that it may be starting to happen, through machinery services, facilitated by ICT.

The current leading example is “Hello Tractor”, an innovative platform in Nigeria to co-share tractors using SMS, GPS, and smart sensors. This “Uber for tractorshas enabled access to smart tractors at the doorstep of small farmers resulting in a significant increase in productivity through mechanization. Nonetheless, many challenges remain for mechanization across the region, including access to finance, in the timely availability of support services and in attaining scale. Temptations to subsidize mechanization should be resisted, ensuring that the process remains compatible with market forces instead, as revealed through factor price ratios (labor over capital and labor over land).

The potential benefits from ICT in increasing agricultural labor productivity are not limited to mechanization. ICT also helps improve agronomic practices by facilitating extension, and importantly, it increases farmers’ access to markets (old and new), and can leverage their bargaining position, enabling them to get a better price for their produce. Farmbook in Africa and MFarming in Tanzania are just some of the more recent initiatives using ICT tools to do so. Better market access and higher prices will in turn foster the adoption of productivity enhancing technologies to increase supplies. This opens up important perspectives for rural youth to raise their income in agriculture.

Some opportunities are further emerging within the urban areas themselves. Between 1,000 and 15,000 farming jobs, have for example been created in urban centers like Bamako, Accra, and Kumasi, and even megacities such as Shanghai maintain their urban farming as an important part of the economic system.

The technologies are at times often also quite advanced, such as those applied by Fresh Direct Nigeria –recent winner of the WEF African Technology Entrepreneur of the Year award- who has pioneered peri-urban fresh food production through stackable container farms. By using hydroponics, its organic urban farms use less water and land than conventional farming while producing 15 times higher yield, and enabling urban population access high quality produce.

Agriculture dependent jobs

But most new and good jobs are to be generated down and up agricultural stream. With the demand for aggregation, storage, processing, logistics, food preparation, restaurants and other related services becoming increasingly important, many employment opportunities will emerge off the farm, in the larger agri-food systems. Just like Hello Tractor generates high-quality job opportunities for tractor owners, drivers and other providers of financial services, these downstream activities will also open up significant job opportunities. In Southern and Eastern Africa, they are predicted to absorb about one quarter of the labor released by on farm agriculture over the coming decade.

To better prepare youth and women to take up these jobs, the Africa Agribusiness Incubators Network (AAIN) is establishing at least 108 incubators in 54 African countries in the next five years focusing on youth and women. The AAIN’s plan is to expose 60,000 students to the “learn as you earn model” and mentor them to start new businesses. This way they aim to create at least 600,000 jobs and 100,000 start ups and SMEs.

The future of jobs in agriculture

While the majority of youth expresses to see its future outside agriculture, many good job opportunities on and off the farm remain in agriculture. The challenge is to make the agricultural sector and its up and downstream activities competitive through innovation, public investment in supportive rural public goods and services, and secondary town development to make them sufficiently attractive to young and older farmers alike. This remains a largely unfinished agenda, one which is equally important to reach the twin goals of eradicating extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. More  suggestions on how to do so can be found here.
Follow the World Bank Jobs Group on Twitter @wbg_jobs.
Emmanuel Quarshie
September 07, 2017

Great and fascinating blog. Engaging the youth and women in Agriculture is key when the necessary technology is in use. ICT is highly commendable in all spheres of developmental agenda. With regards to agricultural production in developing countries, there has been notions that youth migration has negative impact on food production. This assumption is flawed since most of the youth do not engage in food production prior to their migration. Making agriculture and its related jobs competitive and attractive with innovation is the way forward as rightly put in the blog above. The future for agriculture is not necessarily labor-intensive but more of capital-intensive. Mechanization is the best way for sustainable food production and ensuring food security as highlighted by the SDG 2. We must also focus on leveraging all institutional bottlenecks and structural vulnerabilities at the national level. Many thanks for putting such blog across.

September 07, 2017

Poor- means: 'passing over opportunities repeatedly', nigerian youth if financially empowered can provide the much needed employment and eradicate both hunger and poverty, but most time goverment and its donor agencies pay lips services to such empowerment. A financial big push, mentoring and monitoring is urgently needed to frog leap out of the dungeon of poverty in nigeria and africa.

Stephen Okoth
September 22, 2017

This is a good challenge to our education systems to expose our students to opportunities in agriculture such that whether we teach statistics,economics, business studies, project management, supply chain management, finance, languages. physics. biology, chemistry, geography, sociology, history, religious education, engineering,ICT, health, we should also USE EXAMPLES AND CASE STUDIES from Agriculture. Agriculture as an economic sector not only depends on other sectors but also drives them in inter sectoral dependence.

Benjamin Onigbinde
September 29, 2017

It is indisputable fact that Information and Communication technology can contribute significantly to agribusiness, the level of adoption of ICT applications to various sector of the economy is increasing. The challenge is how can we sustain this momentum without increase in broadband and communication infrastructure. As we are expecting more ICT innovation that can drive increase in producitity in Agriculture sector more emphasis need to play in increase communication services.

Aditya agus satria
September 30, 2017

There are too many distortion in the market. In Indonesia we have the government sets the price ceiling for rice. Farmer never had the chance to enjoy high price, and suffering from busines risk.

Ajah Okechukwu Elom
October 01, 2017

The agricultural sector needs practical oriented youths not just literary writer who might not have experienced real on farm situation.

Olabode Philip Olofin
February 10, 2020

Practical experience of youth in agric. business is what the youths need. Relying on degrees or certificates may not yield any tangible results. Going deep into finding out the problems confronting local farmers and find solutions to these problems will make agric. profitable and consequently encourage the youth to see agric. as appealing to their future. Different locations have different problems and challenging regarding agric. business and they need different solutions. Let there be a center where agric. problems and challenges can be reported and solved. Let there be viable market where agric products can be sold profitably by the youths, we will discover the youths will be interested and their unemployment will fall drastically. Although, I am not a farmer, but I'm talking from my practical experience of nothing less than 45 years.

Eduardo Marinho
January 05, 2018

I agree 110%. The world will needs to be fed. ICTs has the bases to help and lead the change in Africa.

Hailu teku
October 09, 2020

Agriculture job opportunity creation is the most important in those Country there economic lied more than 50% by Agriculture but do to less concern and attention to this job become low job performance fore the problems no changes in case Attitude and bearable changes please give attention.

Modou lamin kanagie
December 14, 2020

Well said thank you alot this help me alot in my research for sure.