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In disaster risk management, we often pay close attention to the latest technological boosts to better understand risks and help communities prepare for the next disaster. While such efforts are commendable, I noticed that
Such messages teach us how to keep hazards away from people (reducing existing risks) as well as how to keep people away from hazards (avoid creating new risks). On my latest trip to Japan, we hosted government officials from Armenia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan as part of an experts’ visit focusing on disaster risk management, acting on Japan’s rich culture of passing on such decisive messages to future generations.
For example, Aneyoshi—a small village in disaster-prone Iwate Prefecture on Japan’s northeastern coast—was hit by a tsunami in 1896 that killed more than 60 people, with only two survivors. It was hit again in 1933 with another tsunami that killed more than 100, with only four survivors. After being struck by two tsunamis less than 40 years apart, the village rebuilt on higher ground, heeding the warning engraved on a small, centuries-old stone monument:
“Do not build your homes below this point!”
The stone now serves as a memorial to those who passed away and continues to teach life-saving lessons to future generations. Thanks to this monument, the gigantic waves from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake went all the way up Aneyoshi’s hilly coast and stopped at 90 meters, before the stone monument, leaving households and buildings unharmed.
Beyond Japan, these messages from the past are not only conveyed through engravings on monuments and Kanji characters in neighborhood names, but also in the form of oral tradition.
In Indonesia, a closer look at the impact of the notorious tsunami from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake revealed something unusual: Banda Aceh, located 250 kilometers from the epicenter, suffered the worst losses with an estimated death toll of 167,000 (out of a population of 300,000). Meanwhile, Simeulue, an island just 40 km from the epicenter, only suffered seven casualties (out of 78,000 residents) although it was hit by the tsunami less than 10 minutes after the shaking.
Why? Some attribute this to a local lullaby often sung by parents to their babies, which includes the following advice:
“… If a strong earthquake is followed by the lowering of sea water, please hurry to a higher place…”
Many say this song has been sung since Simeulue villagers experienced the massive tsunami of 1907. At first, this may appear to be an alarming and inappropriate lullaby to sing when you want your baby to go to sleep peacefully. But seeing how many people on the island were saved by following this advice, I have realized it can also be perceived as the most loving, caring, and thoughtful message to instill in children.
Back in Japan, the Hyogo Prefecture, which was severely affected by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, has put forth tremendous efforts in recording, documenting, and remembering the experience from the disaster, and passing appropriate warnings onto future generations to avoid such tragic losses again. During the Central Asia Earthquake Risk Reduction Forum in October 2015, the governor of Hyogo highlighted four themes to guide the prefecture in going forward: “never forget,” “disseminate,” “utilize,” and “prepare.” One of the outreach tools the prefecture is using to raise awareness on seismic risks is the construction of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Memorial in Kobe.
At the national level, Japan has spearheaded the “One Day Before (the disaster) Project” to document and disseminate the responses of disaster survivors to the question, “What would you do if you were to go back to the day before the disaster?” The aim is to share the lessons of survivors and encourage further discussions and efforts for disaster reduction and prevention.
At the World Bank, the Tokyo Disaster Risk Management Hub under the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is also amplifying Japan’s rich experience—as well as its impressive knowledge transfer systems—in disaster risk management through the Japan – World Bank Program on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Developing Countries.
When you have a minute, take a look around and think: What messages have your ancestors left to protect you?
I am from India.
My grandparents are not there anymore. But they felt they led a happy life when they were young.
They used to seek joy in planting saplings, watering & nourishing them, saw them grow into bigger trees giving shelter to people. Their lifestyle itslef was a bigger message I feel.
I was 13 years old when the Tsunami occurred in the Indian ocean. I was lucky enough to survive that. I was not much grown up to understand the actual reason behind it.
Flash forward 12 years, on 1st December 2015, Chennai city woke up to one of the worst nightmares ever ( Floods, water everywhere again). I was able to see my neighborhood drowning in water, people trying to save themselves by leaving behind their belongings and valuables.
Mother nature gives us enough to satisfy our need, but it is our greed which is killing us.
Urbanization has been a major factor contributing to this. Thousands of trees are being cut down in order to construct tall buildings, commercial complexes, luxurious residential apartments. Unfortunately these are seen as the parameters for smart city. We, unlike our ancestors try to seek joy in seeing big malls coming up at the expense of trees.
Fact remains the same:
"The more we try to exploit our mother nature, the more the destruction we are going to face."
Time is running fast; unless we are going to act swiftly, We would be at the receiving end.
Thank you very much for your comment and your insights from India! Very interesting. Yes, the messages from the past go beyond just the 'disaster warnings' I mentioned in my blog. It would be nice to hear from the experiences of other countries as well.
Dear Mr. KO TAKEUCHI.
Recently, I have read your post, and I absolutely agree that the experience of our ancestors is a real wealth for measuring the disaster risks and responding to emergencies. Broadly speaking the history and historical statistics, which had been accumulated in the wisdom of our ancestors, can help us to survive under modern circumstances.
Being in Almaty, I am sure you have learned a lot already about the city and environment, and you probably know that Almaty had at least two disastrous earthquakes… Because of that, earlier, construction of multistory buildings had been prohibited; only in the 1970s, first 9 story houses had allowed to be constructed… Presently, the prohibition has been absolutely forgotten. Now, multistory buildings have been growing like mushrooms… Where are the limits to this competition? Are the constructed buildings going to sustain serious earthquakes? It is the first important question.
The second threat for Almaty is the floods (sel) from the mountains, which Almaty has suffered many times. The ancestors have created dams and other barriers to protect the city. It is not clear, if the present city management understands the threats allowing lots of construction in the sel dangerous zones, gorges, also destroying trees, other “green” protection.
The third threat for Almaty is air pollution. The ancestors, understanding the streams of the air circulation, had been trying not to create artificial barriers on the ways of the air streams. The present management, being commercialized has probably forgotten the wisdom, trying to work on short term economic commercial goals, which is leading to intensive air pollution and health disaster for the city population.
I am sure that the WB in CA is trying not only to address the potential emergency situations, but work on preventive measures. It would be great to create the modern inventory of the threats in Almaty and system of preventive measures…
Living in Almaty and working in Central Asia for a long time, I think that the same approach would be applicable to the region of Central Asia, where interdependence of water and energy had been successfully, or frequently unsuccessfully, exploited by the rulers. A modern inventory of threats, risks has to be created and regional preventive measures and emergency plans have to be developed… The present political situation in Central Asia is more favorable now…
I wish you every success in your mission!
Dear Mr. Viktor Prodedovich,
Thank you for your comment to the blog! You are absolutely correct that an inventory of threats and risks - or what is often called a risk assessment - is a crucial step to plan and prioritize disaster risk reduction and preventive measures. And yes, the World Bank is supporting governments and relevant stakeholders on this topic.
I'm grateful to see you so interested in disaster risk management in Central Asia and looking forward to hearing more of your ideas.