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Why are women working less under capitalism than communism?

Joanna Tyrowicz's picture
A woman works in a call center. Photo: © Flore de Préneuf / World Bank

The last three decades have seen a transition from central planning to market systems across Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). But over the same period there has been a consistent decrease in women’s employment. Prior to the transition, CEE countries were characterized by a relatively high employment ratio among women. Gender employment gaps were generally lower in CEE under central planning and then increased over the course of transition. 

Harvard and IFC team up for senior training on PPPs and project finance

Isabel Chatterton's picture

I recently had the chance to get to know dozens of forward-thinking, dynamic individuals from the public and private sectors. Despite their varied backgrounds, resumes, and perspectives, they shared one thing in common: they have all been influential in shaping the Asia Pacific PPP landscape. Our gathering was part of the IFC PPP Transaction Advisory Services Unit’s four-day Senior Training Program on PPPs and Project Finance, in collaboration with the Harvard Kennedy School in Singapore.

All of the participants – government representatives, donors, private sector clients, World Bank and MIGA staff, as well as senior IFC staff -- offered a different view on how best to combat today’s global PPP challenges. We captured a few key insights from the training program to share with others:

Integrity Idol: How a reality TV show is changing minds about public service

Roxanne Bauer's picture
In an age when celebrity culture and corruption appear to be omnipresent, it’s quite refreshing to be reminded that there are good people doing good work day in and day out.  These people work in our school systems, hospitals, charities, and as part of government bureaucracy.  Yes, bureaucracy.   

As Blair Glencorse states, “bureaucrats and civil servants can serve citizens in the way that they are supposed to.”  With this in mind, the organization he founded, Accountability Lab, created Integrity Idol, a global campaign run by citizens in search for honest government officials. It aims to “highlight the good people in the system” as way to establish a culture and expectation of honesty and personal responsibility in government postings. Integrity Idol began in Nepal in 2014, spread to Liberia in 2015, and now includes Pakistan and Mali.

The process of selecting an Integrity Idol is participatory from beginning to end. Local teams of volunteers travel across their countries gathering nominations from citizens, hosting public forums and generating discussion on the need for public officials with integrity. From the long list nominees, five are selected in each country with the help of independent panels of experts. These finalists are then filmed and their episodes are shown on national television and played on the radio for a week, and citizens can vote for their favorites through SMS short-codes and on the website. The winner in each country is crowned in a national ceremony in the capital.

Here, Glencorse discusses Integrity Idol back in 2014, when the program was just getting started in Nepal.  Nominations are now open in Pakistan, Nepal, and Mali. To nominate a candidate in one of these countries visit www.integrityidol.org.
 
Integrity Idol: How a reality TV show is changing minds about public service

A push for keeping adolescent girls in school in Malawi and Zambia

Christin McConnell's picture
Secondary School students from southern Malawi gather for their general assembly (Christin McConell/World Bank)

I asked Martha, a Form Four (Grade 12) student at a secondary school in southern Malawi, if she considered herself a role model. Completing her education hasn’t been easy for Martha – being sent home for weeks at a time when her family struggled with school fees, trying to avoid the distractions of boys, and staying on top of challenging coursework are among the challenges she deals with.

Media (R) evolutions: How does world population compare to social media users?

Davinia Levy's picture

New developments and curiosities from a changing global media landscape: People, Spaces, Deliberation brings trends and events to your attention that illustrate that tomorrow's media environment will look very different from today's, and will have little resemblance to yesterday's.

Have you checked your social media channels today? Posted a filtered - or #nofilter - picture, shared a cute cat video or twitted your views on an interesting news piece?

If the answer is yes, you are not alone. There are actually a lot of people using social media. Here is an infographic that shows social media by the number of active monthly users compared with the world’s population.

Public-private cooperation to build digital identity systems

Julia Clark's picture
Today, the World Bank, Secure Identity Alliance, and GSMA have launched a joint white paper,  “Digital Identity: Towards Shared Principles for Public and Private Sector Cooperation”. Building on an existing body of research on digital identity for sustainable development, this paper takes a first step in framing key issues, benefits and challenges for public-private cooperation to build digital identity systems. It highlights the primary dividends and risks of digital identity ecosystems, describes the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, and discusses emerging models of identity systems and partnerships. In addition, it suggests some common themes and principles that stakeholders should consider in order to ensure that digital identity systems are inclusive, trustworthy and sustainable. We hope that it serves as a basis for future analytical work in this important area.
 
Individuals, governments and private sector companies share a common interest in having trustworthy systems that enable end-user identity verification. Public sector agencies need inclusive and secure identity systems to administer government programs and delivery of services, including elections, social transfers, tax collection and border security. Similarly, private firms often rely on government-issued identification (e.g., birth certificates and national IDs) to verify the identity of their users and build their own identity systems to support client services. For the end-user, it is all about security of personal data and timely and efficient access to services and benefits. 

One Part of Something Bigger

It has been almost four years since I first became involved with the regional public-private dialogue initiative, the Caribbean Growth Forum (CGF). In June 2012, I walked into the conference room at University of the West Indies,  Mona Campus for the Launch of the first phase of the initiative and there was something electric in the air. It was new and fresh, but old fears lingered; was this to become 'just another regional talk-shop?'

Wide-eyed and optimistic I was determined that for my small part it wouldn't turn out that way.

Apples are not oranges – but bad questions will make you think so

Sonia Jawaid Shaikh's picture

While global wave-based country surveys may be asking boring questions, many others are not.

Consider this survey by Pew on why American workers use social media at work. Instead of merely relying on the number of estimated hours and types of social media used or attempting to calculate the internet subscriptions per 100 people in a community, the survey goes ahead and gives respondents a chance to explain their behaviors. Interestingly, a majority use social media to take a “mental” break from work, followed by connecting with family and friends.

Similar results were found by World Wide Web for a different demographic: poor urban women in developing countries. When asked why they access the internet, 97% of them said they used the internet to maintain existing social ties.

Now forgive me for making a leap, but millions of users around the globe “could be” using social media primarily to take breaks or to connect with friends and family. If that is true, it means that a huge majority may not be very interested or active in social campaigns or political participation via social media. In this scenario, the usual largely accepted link between political activity around the world and the number of social media users may require serious readjustment.

 

2016 Oil price forecast revised higher after supply disruptions boost prices in second quarter

John Baffes's picture

The World Bank is raising its crude oil price forecast for 2016 to $43 a barrel from $41 dollars after a 37 percent jump in energy prices in the second quarter due principally to disruptions to supply, particularly from wildfires in northwestern Canada and sabotage of oil infrastructure in Nigeria.


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